Instead, use pest control materials with broad modes of activity such as Beauveria bassiana alone, or mixed with azadirachtin, insecticidal soap, horticultural oils, or insect growth regulators such as novaluron. Sanitation is the first and most important step in implementing an effective pest management program. Some thrips are beneficial because they kill other pests to your plants, so you want some thrips on flowers. Western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis continues to be a serious pest of floriculture crops in New England. Furthermore, consider releasing biological control agents such as Neoseilus (=Amblyseius) cucumeris, Amblyseius swirskii, or the minute pirate bug, Orius insidiosus. Although WFTs have piercing-sucking mouthparts, they do not feed exclusively in the phloem sieve tubes like aphids and whiteflies. The spread of WFT and TSWV or INSV from grower to grower is caused in two ways: by shipping tospovirus-infected plants (both propagative and pre-finished) and by shipping plant materials infested with tospovirus-carrying WFT. Adult male WFT are light yellow, while adult female WFT are a little larger than the males and vary in color from light yellow, yellow with brown splotches, to dark brown. See section on monitoring. Some plant species die from the virus, while others survive, but are unsalable. Check indicator plants for virus symptoms, which appear as dark-ringed lesions that develop around thrips feeding scars. p. 14-16. feet. In Massachusetts greenhouses, WFT can be found year-round whenever temperatures are favorable for their development and plants, including weeds are available for food. Western flower thrips can be difficult to manage for a number of reasons. P.O. Yellow sticky cards are best used for general pest monitoring because they are also attractive to whitefllies, winged aphids, leafminers, fungus gnats and shoreflies. Use a blue non-sticky card to attract thrips to indicator plants since WFT are more strongly attracted to blue than to other colors. ImmunoStrips from Agdia Inc 30380 County Rd. Control is usually not necessary because western flower thrips rarely cause economic damage at densities that typically occur in strawberry fields. How to Kill Thrips. Seven species of thrips are vectors for TSWV, but the only confirmed vector for INSV is WFT. Recent research in Canada reported that the cultivar "Purple Flash" was more effective as a banker plant than the ornamental pepper variety "Black Pearl" which has been used over the past few years for this purpose. Release Orius late in the day when the louvers are closed and thrips are active. When infestations become serious the leaves themselves can shrivel. Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, are likely the most serious pest of greenhouse crops in the world. WFT may also pupate in the open flowers of certain plants with complex floral architectures, such as chrysanthemum. Using On-Site Test Kits to Detect Tospoviruses On-site test kits can be used to determine whether or not tospoviruses are present in greenhouse plants. Continue to monitor WFT population levels to determine if additional pesticide applications are necessary. The eggs hatch into larvae, which usually remain protected in flower buds 1998. Information on pesticide use is available in the current New England Greenhouse Floriculture Guide, A Management Guide for Insects, Diseases, Weeds and Growth Regulators. Blue sticky cards are more effective in detecting thrips than yellow sticky cards. Ornamental pepper plants have been used in spring crops as banker plants at a rate of one plant per 1,000 sq. Keep thrips-infected plants isolated in a separate area to prevent them from moving throughout the range. with additional cards placed near the doors, vents and thrips-sensitive plants. Get one year of Greenhouse Product News in both print and digital editions for free. Scout crops routinely using colored (yellow or blue) sticky cards. Thrips can devastate fields and reduce yields as much as 50 percent. Adults have two sets of narrow, clear, nearly veinless wings that have dark, hairy, fringes. However, the bad ones need to be controlled and there are some specific ways to go about controlling thrips. However, it is important to note that any WFT Floral Facts, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA. Weeds serve as host for WFT and INSV and managing weeds inside and outside the greenhouse is critical for thrips management. Both adults and nymphs may aggregate in flowers or other concealed locations on plants; however, adults (particularly females) prefer to feed on pollen. WFT are small (about 2.0 mm long) insects with piercing-sucking mouthparts. Biological control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis with Orius species in eggplant greenhouses in Turkey 470 Although the thrips number per leaf in 6 O. laevigatus-released plots was statistically different from the other plots after 7th of April, it was above the economical threshold (p<0.05) (Table 1). Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) prefer to feed on developing plant tissues such as growing tips and flower buds. Western flower thrips will also ingest the contents of pollen grains. In addition to using pest control materials, there is always the option of purchasing and releasing biological control agents (predators and benefical nematodes). WFT prefer to feed on flowers, so the longer a crop can be grown without flowering the lower the thrips population will be. Place Amblyseius cucumeris slow release sachets in hanging baskets that cannot easily be reached. Photo of larvae. August 1990, pp.1, 2, 3. Releases must be … Toward the end of the second larval stage, the thrips stops feeding and drops or enters the soil or leaf litter and becomes a prepupa, which is a nonfeeding stage that lasts one or two days before pupation. Biological control agents must be released before Western flower thrips populations establish or reach outbreak proportions. Western flower thrips can be distinguished by their red eyes, while onion thrips have gray eyes. 6 Elkhart, Indiana 46514www.agdia.com, For more information see fact sheet: Diagnostic Test Kits, Another option for detecting tospoviruses is to send a plant sample to a plant disease diagnostic clinic. The pesticide label is the ultimate authority for pesticide use. Overlapping generations of thrips within a greenhouse may result in continuous virus transmission. Treat with compatible pesticide to reduce populations. Instead they feed within the mesophyll and epidermal cells of leaf tissues using a single stylet in the mouth, and then inserting a set of paired stylets, which lacerate and damage cell tissues and function to imbibe cell fluids. Western flower thrips attack a wide range of plants including: carnations, chrysanthemums, corn, cotton, cucumbers, eggplants, gerberas, grapes, impatiens, melons, peaches, peanuts, peas, and peppers. (Release rate: 10 mites per square foot). However, in most cases, WFT management is “reactive” or occurs when populations are already abundant, which unfortunately limits options. HG03003 aimed to deliver on going effective chemical management of western flower thrips (WFT) by providing crop specific resistance monitoring and the identification of novel and new chemicals. MOA group numbers are found on many pesticide labels and are listed below for selected materials listed for managing WFT. Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis P. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a major agricultural and horticulture pest worldwide (Kirk, 2002; Kirk and Terry, 2003).It causes damage and spoilage to a vast number of economically important plant species through feeding, oviposition and spread of several plant diseases, most notably tospoviruses (Morse and Hoddle, 2006). Also, plant propagators will have a lower tolerance threshold for thrips than finished plant growers. The second instar nymphs migrate to the base of a plant and enter the growing medium to pupate. Apply Hypoaspis miles (or Hypoaspis aculifer) to media. Biological Control of Western Flower Thrips. Each MoA group is assigned an Insecticide Resistance Action Committee Group number (IRAC code). Van Driesche, T. Smith, P. Lopes, J. Sanderson, S. MacAvery, T. Rusinec, and G. Couch. One problem with testing for viruses is that some host plant species do not express TSWV or INSV symptoms until long after the initial infection. (Release rate: 10 mites per square foot), Apply Amblyseius cucumeris in bulk formulation to flats and benchtop pots, and to easily reached hanging baskets. Larvae resemble adults, but are wingless. Heinz, J.C. van Lenteren, A. Loomans, R. Wick, T. Smith, P. Lopes, J.P. Sanderson, M. Daughtrey, and M. Brownbridge. As soon as INSV or TSWV is detected, infected plants should be discarded and a intensive thrips management program implemented. Biological control methods, should not be used when either TSWV or INSV is already present in the greenhouse. For example, Saintpaulia is very susceptible and treatment thresholds are lower than 5-10 thrips/trap/week. If used appropriately, these options should avoid or at least alleviate WFT populations from building-up. Check plants each day, looking for WFT feeding scars, which are whitish and have an irregular outline. Symptoms vary depending on plant species, cultivar, developmental stage of the plant, and environmental conditions. Use pest control materials with broad modes of action early in the crop production cycle and if populations are starting to increase (based on numbers of WFT captured on sticky cards) then incorporate pest control materials with site-specific modes of action. Floral Notes 13 955: 8-10. The Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) is an organization of chemical companies and researchers that has classified insecticides and miticides into different modes of action groups. Pear thrips (Taeniothrips inconsequens) Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) . Consider treating only if populations reach 10 thrips per blossom (UC-Davis). For example, in cut roses, removing all flower buds (including non-marketable flowers) can significantly reduce thrips populations … The eggs of WFT are well protected and in general, pesticide sprays are ineffective against them. Give yourself some credit, at this point, you have done all you can to maintain WFT populations low enough to avoid economic crop damage. The adults will move across the greenhouse and kill first and second instar thrips larvae and adult thrips. Biological control organisms currently under investigation include: Use of biological control methods should only be implemented as part of a well-planned IPM program. Thrips feed by piercing plant cells with their mouthparts and sucking out their contents. This insect order is composed exclusively of tiny insects commonly called thrips, and includes more than 7,000 species. It is difficult to manage WFT in greenhouses for a number of reasons, including its ability to feed on a broad range of plant types, high female reproductive capacity, rapid lifecycle (egg to adult), small size (_ 2.0 mm long), feeding habit, cryptic habitats (e.g., unopened flower buds) and resistance to pest control materials. Female thrips particularly like to lay their eggs on the flowers and fruit of plants. In addition to direct feeding injury, WFT vector two tospoviruses, the impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV) and the tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), both of which can be identified using on-site test kits. Sanderson J.P. Western Flower Thrips Biology and Control. Labor will be saved if this is done when baskets are being hung. Pesticides are often used to control western flower thrips ( Frankliniella occidentalis) in horticultural crops. Of the ten known types of tospoviruses, only two-TSWV and INSV-infect ornamental plants, but both infect over 600 species of ornamental plants. In addition to resistance, there are other reasons for poor regulation of WFT populations when using pest control materials including 1) using the wrong pest control material (this does happen); 2) spray timing, which is associated with the age structure of WFT populations (again, scouting will avoid this problem); 3) spray coverage (especially when using contact pest control materials); 4) pH of the spray solution; 5) frequency of applications; and 6) migration of WFT populations into greenhouses from outdoors, which may have already been exposed to a similar mode of action that will be used in the greenhouse. Below are some key points to contemplate when implementing a pest management program against WFT: The first line of defense in any pest management program is sanitation. WFT damage plants by feeding on leaves and flowers. In cotton this species was found to be a predator of spider mite eggs (Gonzalez and Wilson 1982, Hunter and Ullman 1989, Kindt et al. Solabiol Bug Free, Doff Greenfly & Blackfly Killer) or plant oils (e.g. Amblyseius swirskii is another predatory mite being used. In all crops, soil drenches of nematodes such as Steinernema feltiae may be directed against western flower thrips pupae and prepupae in the soil. Once you start seeing an increase in numbers on the sticky cards, which may be above your established threshold (e.g., 10 to 20 adult WFT per sticky card per week), then you may need to use a different set of pest control materials including abamectin, acephate, methiocarb, spinosad, chlorfenapyr and/or pyridalyl to ‘knock down’ populations. These individuals are today’s movers and shakers who are already setting the pace for tomorrow. In one study, white sugar added to Beauveria bassiana (Botanigard) increased mortality by 20 percent. TSWV is a problem mostly on vegetable plants such as tomatoes and peppers, while INSV is the predominant tospovirus found in ornamentals. Treatments should stop when numbers of thrips have declined to an acceptable level. Use sticky cards to monitor adult thrips. Western Flower Thrips in Greenhouses: A Review of Its Biological Control and Other Methods. The use of the mouthparts is dependent on the species of thrips. For example, avocado thrips and greenhouse thrips superficially scar avocado fruit skin. Frankliniella occidentalis– known as Western Flower Thrips or Californian Thrips, is a small insect originating on the West Coast of North America, which spread through much of Europe in the 1980’s as a consequence of the international trade in plants. The maxillae then ingest the fluids from the cells, but not directly from the vascular tissue. For instance, at full maturity, onion thrips and western flower thrips are larger than citrus thrips and avocado thrips. Sparta, MI 49345. The key to WFT management with pest control materials is to initiate applications when populations are “low,” which avoids having to deal with Adult male WFT are light yellow, while adult female WFT are a little larger than the males and vary in color from light yellow, yellow with brown splotches, to dark brown. WFT feed on a broad range of plants including impatiens, fuchsia, chrysanthemum, ivy geraniums, marigolds, hibiscus, verbena and petunia. Read on for some practical and effective suggestions to manage these destructive pests. Eggs are inserted in leaves, bracts, and petals and hatch in about a week into larvae, which feed in flower buds or terminal foliage. The western flower thrips were originally from the western US, but began to spread in the 1960s and are now a global pest. Bug Clear Gun for Fruit & Veg, Neudorff Bug Free Bug and Larvae Killer), fatty acids (e.g. However, research by Raymond Cloyd, Kansas State University showed that the addition of brown sugar and other sweeteners to lure thrips from hiding does not work and in some cases can cause the growth of black sooty mold. Orius will feed on pollen in the absence of thrips and also other small pests such as spider mites and caterpillar eggs. Read on for some practical and effective suggestions to manage these destructive pests. Labor will be saved if this is done when baskets are being hung. Thrips will preferentially feed on flowers, but flowers do not show virus symptoms and will attract WFT away from the leaves. Flowers and plant tips can be shaken over a piece of paper for additional monitoring. 2000. The lifecycle (from egg to adult), generally takes two to three weeks. Bad ones need to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops thrips can be distinguished by red... 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