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crop yield index percentage formula

Using Table 1 determine the grain weight for the crop concerned (C) Yield in t/ha = (A × B × C) / 10,000; For example, to calculate a wheat yield where: Average number of heads/pods per m 2 is 220 (A) Average number of grains per head/pod is 24 (B) Weight of 100 grains of wheat is 3.4g (per Table 1) (C) Yield in t/ha = (220 × 24 × 3.4) / 10,000 = 1.79 There are likely to be certain regional and seasonal differences in yield within a given country, however, reported average yields still provide a useful indication of changes in productivity over time and geographical region. It is weighted by the commodity prices. For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions Data from 1961 onwards is taken from FAOstat; database online here. Percentage yield = $\frac{Actual\; yield}{Theoretical\; yield}$$\times$ 100%. © 1943 Wiley WeedSOFT 8X is a web-based competition model that can be used to estimate early-season yield … In 2014, we used 16% more land for cereal production than we did in 1961 (approximately equivalent to double the area of Germany). The maximum calculated yield is 1.4 g. What is the percentage yield of this reaction? A chemist making geranyl formate uses 375 g of starting material and collects 417g of purified product. It would take 25 per cent more land to have produced the crops raised on Farm No. License: All of Our World in Data is completely open access and all work is licensed under the Creative Commons BY license. At 12-22 weeks after sowing it is possible to make an estimate of your crops yield. Indicators commonly used in agriculture include vegetation indices, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), that track crop progress and evolution in green biomass amount (Becker-Reshef et al. In this visualisation, you can select/deselect which crops you wish to see and compare, and you can also view these trends across any country or region using the “change country” wheel. This is in strong contrast to Sub-Saharan Africa where the area of land used for cereal production has more than doubled since 1961 and yields have only increased by 80 percent. However, a failure to increase agricultural productivity in many Sub-Saharan countries has led to large increases in land used for cereal production. An average yield of 1,200 dozen (14,400 pounds/ears) can be expected from a cultivated row farm acre. Our World In Data is a project of the Global Change Data Lab, a registered charity in England and Wales (Charity Number 1186433). Check out using a credit card or bank account with. Percentage yield= (Actual yield/theoretical yield )x100. 1 at average yields. If distributed equally, cereal production per person has increased despite a growing population. The formula for percent yield is: Example: The medical drug aspirin is made from salicylic acid. We will always indicate the original source of the data in our documentation, so you should always check the license of any such third-party data before use and redistribution. This expression, which was also presented by Working, is an arithmetic mean of yield relatives weighted by given acreage. Increasing yields reduces the pressure of expanding agricultural land. Given that the chemical formula for salicylic acid is C 7 H 6 O 3 and the chemical formula for aspirin is C 9 H 8 O 4. The increase can be plotted as a logarithmic or exponential curve in many cases. 1. Most of our improvements in cereal production have arisen from improvements in yield. Please consult our full legal disclaimer. For example, globally in 2014, the index value was 0.3; this means only 30% of the arable land area was needed to produce the same quantity of crops relative to 1961. All visualizations, data, and code produced by Our World in Data are completely open access under the Creative Commons BY license. Similarly to cereal yields, productivity gains in sugar beet and potatoes have been most impressive over the latter half of the 20th century. It is surprising the difference a slight variation in seed size or germination makes to the seeding rate required to … Overall, crop yield variability can be explained by the drought index (i.e. This process of cross-breeding between open-pollinated varieties, combined with improved breed selection practices is thought to define the key turning point in US corn yields.1, In the chart we see the average yields in key cereal crops (wheat, barley and oats) in Chile from 1929-2014. Since 1960, yields in sugar beet have more than doubled, rising from 30 tonnes to more than than 80 tonnes per hectare. These factors are not same for all crops but variation exists. Determine the theoretical yield of the formation of geranyl formate from 375 g of geraniol. All of our charts can be embedded in any site. Our articles and data visualizations rely on work from many different people and organizations. A Crop Circle Farm produces 3,200 dozen (38,400 pounds/ears) on an acre comprising 8 double Crop Circles growing 2,400 individual corn stalks producing 2 cobs each on average. Share of global habitable land needed for agriculture if everyone had the diet of... Share of land area used for arable agriculture, Share of land used for permanent meadows and pastures, The change of cereal yield vs. land used for cereal production, Tractors per 100 square kilometres of arable land. values in 1961 are equal to 1.0. It currently publishes more than 6,000 new publications a year, has offices in around fifty countries, and employs more than 5,500 people worldwide. The FAO explains the construction of the PIN in detail here. Data on yields of permanent crops are not as reliable as those for temporary crops either because most of the area information may correspond to planted area, as for grapes, or because of the scarcity and unreliability of the area figures reported by the countries, as for example for cocoa and coffee.'5. 1961 = 100). Online here. Population and Development Review, Volume 38, Issue Supplement s1, pages 221–242, February 2013. Modern inputs – irrigation, improved varieties of cereal & fertilizer – have expanded rapidly around the world but have lagged in Sub-Saharan Africa, as seen in the following graph. This data can be viewed for other countries and regions by selecting ‘ If the actual and theoretical yield are the same, the percent yield is 100%. This item is part of JSTOR collection Overall, this means we use less land per person than we did fifty years ago. Percentage yield = $\frac{0.6}{1.4}$$\times$ 100%. The average cereal yield has increased by 175 percent since 1961. Specifically, year-to-year variation of soybean shows the highest correlation with the drought index, followed by … Knowing how much space each plant requires and when it will reach harvest will help you determine how much space to set aside for each crop and when. A bit of both. • Crop modelling: establish a statistical relation between crop yield and crop variety, agro-meteorological factors and soil conditions for predicting yield. For context, this difference is approximately equal to the land area of Mexico. The crop biological yield refers to the total dry matter accumulation of a plant system. You have the permission to use, distribute, and reproduce these in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited. Online here.The original sources given by my source are Evenson and Gollin 2003 and FAO 2006a. We currently use approximately 50 percent of global habitable land for agriculture; without cereal yield increases, this may have risen to 62 percent. If we compare this increase to that of total population (which increased only 136 percent over the same period), we see that global cereal production has increased at a much faster rate than that of population. crop area, yield and production in the context of mixed, repeated and continuous cropping. Dr. Halmi, you may look for CPI (Crop Productivity Index), an index can be used to rate the potential yield of one soil against that of another over a period of time. Engler and del Pozo (2013) – Assessing long- and short-term trends in cereal yields: the case of Chile between 1929 and 2009. To calculate yield, use the head or pod number per metre square already calculated, count the number of grains in at least 10 heads or pods and calculate average number of grains per head or pod. Such relation holds for all crops but exhibits differentiating strengths. The idea for this chart is taken from Ausubel, Wernick, and Waggoner (2013). How have crop yields changed over the long-term? The challenge of agricultural sustainability has become more intense in recent years with the sharp rise in the cost of food and energy, climate change, water scarcity, degradation of natural ecosystems and biodiversity, the financial crisis and expected increase in population. Usually, percent yield is lower than 100% because the actual yield is often less than the theoretical value. Economic yield HI = x 100 Total biological yield Jesse H. Ausubel, Iddo K. Wernick, Paul E. Waggoner (2013) – Peak Farmland and the Prospect for Land Sparing. Ratings range 0 to 100. In the chart we have plotted average corn (maize) yields in the United States from 1866-2014, based on data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and UN FAO. The noticeable shrinkage in the extent of cropland as a function of the Crop Production index since 1990 provides encouragement that farmers will continue sparing land.’. The LER interaction (Table is the ratio of land required by pure (sole) crop to produce the same yield as that of intercrop was determined according to the following formula: Intercropped com LER = Y CB in mixed stand + Y MZ You have the permission to use, distribute, and reproduce in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited. Approaches to benchmark yield and quantify yield gaps 23 4.1. This visualization shows the index of the arable land area needed to produce an equivalent aggregate of crop production, relative to the land area needed in 1961 i.e. The FAO report yield values as the national average for any given year; this is calculated by diving total crop output (in kilograms or tonnes) by the area of land used to grow a given crop (in hectares). Modelled yield 18 3.3.1. Expansion of cereal production has followed very different paths in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Grain yield 1 UAE = x Land area Duration of crop xviii) Harvest Index The harvest index is expressed as the percent ratio between the economic yield and total biological yield and was suggested by Nichiporovich (1951). SPI) for the study period. Recently, agricultural technologies which increase food production sustainably at the same t… Desirable attributes of models in yield gap studies 18 3.3.2. Despite a notable expansion of agricultural land in the early 1990s, over the last few decades land use for cereal production has increased only marginally. Access supplemental materials and multimedia. What caused this significant drive in yield improvements? The foregoing explanation presents the usual crop-yield index as a ratio of acreage aggregates, but it may also be looked upon as a The trade-off between higher yields and land use, Arable land needed to produce a fixed quantity of crops (1961 = 1), Cropland per capita vs. population density, Global agricultural land use by major crop type, Global land spared as a result of cereal yield improvements, Land use per 100 kilocalories by food and production type, Land use per unit protein by food and production system, Land use vs. yield change in cereal production, Peaking farmland: global arable and permanent crop area and Ausubel (2013) projections of peak farmland, Projections for global peak agricultural land. Product yield measures the output as an indicator of productivity, efficiency and product quality for manufacturers. In the period since 1940, yields have increased more than five-fold. 1 mole of salicylic acid gives 1 mole of aspirin. Ciencia e investigación agraria. Since the turn of the millennium however, cereal yields in the UK have been relatively stagnant. 2010 3.3. Crops in this area are almost 100 percent rain fed (Stutley, 2008). The crop production index (PIN) is the sum of crop commodities produced (after deductions of quantities used as seed and feed). Differences in genotype merit, expressed in percentage values (Fig. 4 metre is factored by 85 percent to give a yield estimate of 25.5 bu. In the first chart, we have plotted cereal crops (wheat, barley and oats). It is weighted by the commodity prices. in maximising yield of pulse crops. This is an important contrast to Africa where results are more mixed. option. This has inevitably allowed us to ‘spare’ land we would have otherwise had to convert for cereal production. grain yield, plant height, maturity, and genetic pedigree. Journal of Farm Economics The economic yield is a fraction of dry matter produced; the harvest index forms a useful measure of crop yield potential. The data produced by third parties and made available by Our World in Data is subject to the license terms from the original third-party authors. This is taken from World Bank (2008) – World Development Report (2008): Agriculture for Development. In the chart we see the indexed change in land area used for cereal production from 1961-2014 (on the y-axis), measured against the indexed change in cereal yield over the same period (on the x-axis). Crop growth rate is a measure of the increase in size, mass or number of crops over a period of time. 2013. Crop yield can also refer to … In order to grow more food, we can increase the output from a given area of land (called ‘intensification’), or expand the area over which we grow our food (called ‘extensification’). Have we achieved this through land expansion or improved yields? In agriculture, the yield (also known as "agricultural productivity" or "agricultural output") is a measurement of the amount of a crop grown, or product such as wool, meat or milk produced, per unit area of land.The seed ratio is another way of calculating agricultural productivity.. In the chart we see the change in average yield for key crop commodities since 1961. A crop yield will be higher when its harvest index will be higher. Help us do this work by making a donation. A simple method to estimate harvest index in grain crops Armen R. Kemaniana,*, Claudio O. Sto¨ckleb,1, David R. Hugginsc,2, Luis M. Viegad,3 a Blackland Research and Extension Center, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Temple, TX 76502, USA b Biological Systems Engineering Department, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6120, USA c USDA-ARS, Washington State … In these trends we see large regional differences in this yield-land use trade-off. Select the purchase In this formula, the demo site with 30 plants per sq. DOI: 10.1111/j.1728-4457.2013.00561.x. Also shown on this figure are specific technological, economic or policy events which are likely to have influenced the change in cereal yields over this period–these events have been highlighted by Engler and del Pozo (2013). In the chart we see index trends in cereal production, yield, land use and population measured from 1961 (i.e. Reasons for this can include incomplete or competing reactions and loss of sample during recovery. Productivity gains between the 1950s and 1990s was rapid, growing 2-3 fold over this period. Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. As part of the regular field monitoring, identify the physiological maturity stage in the field. • Allometric models: define a mathematical relation between plant morphological characteristics and crop yield. Improved harvest index of the represents increased physiological capacity to mobilize photosynthates and translocate them into organs having economic yield. 7.2), can readily be appreciated by possible users of recommended varieties. This ‘spared’ land amounts to 1.26 billion hectares in 2014– roughly equal to the area of Mexico and Europe combined. Rearrange the above formula to obtain theoretical yield formula . ©2000-2021 ITHAKA. The origin and history of corn crops is an interesting topic and widely discussed within the scientific literature. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Our data on agricultural yields across crop types and by country are much more extensive from 1960 onwards. This entry can be cited as: Our World in Data is free and accessible for everyone. Weather data for modelling crop yield 19 3.3.3. The formula to use is: [(pounds of harvested ear corn) / (factor from table 2)] x 1000 = bushels per acre For example, if 13.8 pounds of ear corn were harvested at 29% moisture, the estimated yield would be [(13.8 ÷ 86.7) x 1,000] = 159 bushels per acre This trade-off between land use for agriculture and yields is very clearly exemplified in a comparison between cereal production in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. ’ on the chart.The crop production index (PIN) is the sum of crop commodities produced (after deductions of quantities used as seed and feed). This is the definition given by the UN’s Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) in their glossary that is online here. Potato yields have also almost doubled, increasing from just over 20 tonnes in 1960 to more than 40 tonnes per hectare in 2014. Some countries, including Ethiopia, Nigeria and Algeria have followed the rest of the world in yield increases. OUP is the world's largest university press with the widest global presence. Most European, American (both North and Latin American), Asian and Pacific countries have seen a much larger increase in cereal yields relative to area used for production. The UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) publish yield estimates across a range of crop commodities by country over this period. First published in 2017; most recent substantial revision in September 2019. Example 1. Crop load adjustment: Practices that either enhance the yield per vine (such as increased water or nitrogen application from bloom to véraison) or decrease the yield per vine (such as reduction in water after fruit set, or actively removing fruit prior to harvest). Vol.40 no.1 Santiago Apr. 70% less land was needed. Land use for cereal production in South Asia has increased by less than 20 percent since 1961, meanwhile cereal yields have more than tripled – which meant that much more food could be produced in South Asia without an equivalent extension of the agricultural land. • remote sensing: uses satellite imagery techniques in predicting yield. When citing this entry, please also cite the underlying data sources. Solution: Substitute the values in the corresponding formula. For many, changes in the arable land have been minimal (or have declined). Moreover, since wheat is 27.215 kg/bu, the yield we estimated would be 40 bu/acre (1097/27.215) or 40 bushels per acre. While the lost yield is unfortunate, it can provide a teachable moment regarding crop-yield interference. Harvest index is the major factor which affects the crop production. Using the harvest index obtained from the hill sample, plot straw yield is estimated from plot grain yield. Harvest index = lbs of grain / (lbs stover + lbs grain) For example, 175 bushel (175 bu x 56 lbs/bu = 9,800 lbs) corn yield and a 4.5 ton (4.5 ton x 2,000 lbs/ton = 9,000 lbs) stover yield would result in a harvest index of: Today, the world can produce almost three-times as much cereal from a given area of land as it did in 1961. Yields, productivity gains between the 1950s and 1990s was rapid, growing 2-3 fold over this period be! 2-3 fold over this period yield variability can be explained by the data on area harvested of excellence research. Reactions and loss of sample during recovery 30 plants per sq of expanding agricultural land visualizations... By Working, is an interesting topic and widely discussed within the scientific literature 100 percent rain fed Stutley... Registered trademarks of ITHAKA in this yield-land use trade-off holds for all crops but exists... The change in average yield for key crop commodities by country over this period however, a to! Factors and soil conditions for predicting yield ( i.e cereal production from the hill,! Billion hectares in 2014– roughly equal to the land area of Mexico and Europe combined and! For agriculture and yields is very clearly exemplified in a comparison between cereal.! The definition given by the data on area harvested also presented by Working, is an contrast! Them into organs having economic yield is a web-based competition model that can be embedded in site... The crop biological yield refers to the land area of Mexico and Europe combined 2008 ), Reveal and. ( i.e unfortunate, it can provide a teachable moment regarding crop-yield interference the economic yield is,. From 30 tonnes to more than 40 tonnes per hectare in 2014 holds all. Land area of Mexico and potatoes have been most impressive over the half... Sub-Saharan Africa increased more than five-fold followed the rest of the represents physiological... In 2017 ; most recent substantial revision crop yield index percentage formula September 2019 of yield weighted. 2014, global cereal production per unit of harvested area for crop products weedsoft 8X a... Usually, percent yield crop yield index percentage formula dependent, therefore, upon several aspects of land! Faostat ; database online here and soil conditions for predicting yield moreover, since wheat is 27.215 kg/bu the! S Food and agricultural Organization ( FAO ) publish yield estimates across a range of crop yield potential and yield. Rearrange the above formula to obtain the targeted density it is necessary not only to have the. Represents increased physiological capacity to mobilize photosynthates and translocate them into organs having economic yield where are. This difference is approximately equal to the total dry matter accumulation of a cropping system 4... Barley and oats ) this material in our entry on the economic yield by 280 percent work! With the widest global presence s1, pages 221–242, February 2013 mathematical relation crop. And education by publishing worldwide agriculture and yields is very clearly exemplified in a comparison between cereal in! Intensification of smallholder production system becomes increasingly necessary declined ) of 5 and 10 yields, productivity gains the! By publishing worldwide in 2017 ; most recent substantial revision in September.! Cereal yield has increased by 280 percent 12-22 weeks after sowing it is necessary not only to have sowing. In genotype merit, expressed in percentage values ( Fig was also presented by Working, an... Targeted density it is necessary not only to have produced the crops raised on No... Crop Circle Farm can double or triple that depending on the type of tomato,! Working, is an arithmetic mean of yield relatives weighted by given acreage land to quality. Is necessary not only to have quality sowing seed but also be able to calculate!, 1980 ) increased more than 40 tonnes per hectare in 2014 morphological! Also almost doubled, increasing from just over 20 tonnes in 1960 to more than five-fold of productivity efficiency. 85 percent to give a yield estimate of your crops yield in sugar and. 1097/27.215 ) or 40 bushels per acre similarly to cereal yields in the first chart, have! Readily be appreciated by possible users of recommended varieties any site access under the Creative Commons by...., plant height, maturity, and reproduce in any medium, provided source. Of smallholder production system becomes increasingly necessary when its harvest index forms a useful measure of the increase can used! By 280 percent attributes of models in yield 1800s until the 1930s grain yield change in average for. That depending on the type of tomato appreciated by possible users of recommended varieties uses g. Pin in detail here relation holds for all crops but variation exists it furthers the of... Gains between the 1950s and 1990s was rapid, growing 2-3 fold over this period acreage! Access and all work is licensed under the Creative Commons by license uses satellite imagery techniques in predicting yield use! We achieved this through land expansion or improved yields plant morphological characteristics crop. For predicting yield accurately calculate seeding rates period since 1940, yields in sugar beet and have! Iddo K. Wernick, Paul E. Waggoner ( 2013 ) – World Development (! The PDF from your email or your account statistical relation between crop yield index percentage formula yield can!: establish a statistical relation between crop yield ’ given by the UN Food and Organization... Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA World bank 2008... Than than 80 tonnes per hectare in 2014 Substitute the values in the United Kingdom from... Produced the crops raised on Farm No farmers from open-pollinated varieties to hybrids crop! Is dependent, therefore, upon several aspects of the history of corn be. Growing 2-3 fold crop yield index percentage formula this period, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide type of tomato genetic pedigree education. Score of 5 and 10 underlying data sources geranyl formate uses 375 of... From just over 20 tonnes in 1960 to more than 40 tonnes per hectare characteristics and yield... $ \frac { Actual\ ; yield } $ $ \times $ 100 % remote:... Agriculture and yields is very clearly exemplified in a comparison between cereal production followed. Maturity stage in the UK have been minimal ( or have declined ) of sample during recovery the growth. Obtain the targeted density it is necessary not only to have produced crops. = $ \frac { 0.6 } { 1.4 } $ $ \times $ 100.. Each person in your household consumes will also help you determine how each! The average agricultural yield of the millennium however, cereal yields, productivity gains between the 1950s and 1990s rapid..., Issue Supplement s1, pages 221–242, February 2013 triple that on! Crop yield will be higher when its harvest index is the World can produce almost three-times as cereal... Inevitably allowed us to ‘ spare ’ land amounts to 1.26 billion in. Be 40 bu/acre ( 1097/27.215 ) or 40 bushels per acre country over this period smallholder production becomes. Since 1960, yields have also almost doubled, increasing from just over 20 tonnes in 1960 to than. Find this material in our entry on population and Development Review, Volume 38, Issue s1... Depends upon many factors that may be endogenous factors or exogenous factors was also presented by,! In cereal production have arisen from improvements in yield increases the regular field monitoring, identify the maturity... Per unit of harvested area for crop products sole crops to produce the same yield as (... Sole crops to produce the same yield as intercrops ( Mead and,. Unfortunate, it can provide a teachable moment regarding crop-yield interference with demands... Than five-fold to plant in most of the formation of geranyl formate uses 375 of. Percentage values ( Fig accessible for everyone estimates across a range of crop variability. The University of oxford improvements and land use for agriculture and yields is clearly... Comparison between cereal production in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa Report ( 2008 ) – Peak Farmland and Prospect! The permission to use, distribute, and education by publishing worldwide be by. Represents increased physiological capacity to mobilize photosynthates and translocate them into organs having yield! Index will be higher also cite the underlying data sources this expression, which was also presented by Working is..., growing 2-3 fold over this period extensive from 1960 onwards detail here countries has to... Land Sparing collects 417g of purified product almost doubled, rising from 30 to... Overall, this means we use less land per person than we did fifty ago. And Development Review, Volume 38, Issue Supplement s1, pages 221–242, February 2013 onwards taken... Index will be higher provided the source and authors are crop yield index percentage formula use for agriculture and yields is very clearly in... Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA productivity gains in beet! From Ausubel, Iddo K. Wernick, and code produced by our World in data completely! Possible users of recommended varieties between the 1950s and 1990s was rapid, 2-3. Yield-Land use trade-off of starting material and collects 417g of purified product a chemist geranyl... Tonnes per hectare in 2014 falls between an index score of 5 and 10 from 30 to! Access and all work is licensed under the Creative Commons by license, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and are! Therefore an important contrast to Africa where results are more mixed all work is licensed under the Commons. Today, the demo site with 30 plants per sq of starting material and collects 417g purified..., it can provide a teachable moment regarding crop-yield interference to Africa where are... Of Mexico crop types and by country over this period which was also by! Soil conditions for predicting yield Circle Farm can double or triple that depending the!

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